Automatic wavelength and slit setting for maximum convenience and error-free set-up. The large, self-calibrating 0.33 meter monochromator has been specifically designed to provide the high light throughput and stability needed for atomic absorption. Spectral bandwidth is continuously adjustable between 0.2 and 2 nm, and for furnace work, reduced slit height is available with all slit widths. A wide-range photomultiplier tube covers the full wavelength range.
True Double Beam Stability The genuine double beam optical system of the GBC 932AB Plus measures the sample and reference signals every mains cycle to give the best correction for lamp noise and the most stable baseline possible.
Protected Optical System Ensures Long-Term Performance The 932AB Plus uses mirrors throughout the optical system to ensure that correct focus and high energy throughput are maintained at all wavelengths. To protect the optical surfaces, a dust cover is fitted over the optical system and additional protection is provided by coating the mirrors with quartz.
Asymmetric Modulation Reduces Noise Asymmetric modulation for double beam instruments is a GBC innovation. This technique has been optimized for the best possible double beam performance. The GBC 932AB Plus reduces noise by up to 40%.
Flame Atomization System All materials in contact with the sample have been selected for maximum corrosion resistance. The spray chamber is made from inert polypropylene. The burner is made entirely of titanium. The nebulizer has a platinum-iridium capillary and a titanium venturi.The nebulizer also has an adjustable sample uptake rate, essential for optimum performance with refractory elements or organic solvents. The whole flame atomization system is easily removed for cleaning or for changeover to graphite furnace.
Optics Single beam (933 Plus) or double beam (932 Plus) with background correction and flame emission capability. The 932 Plus has asymmetric modulation with 2:1 sample-to-reference ratio for noise reduction. All-reflective system with quartz overcoating on mirrors. Dust cover over optical system.
Monochromator Ebert-Fastie design with 333 mm focal length and 185-900 nm wavelength range. 1800 line/mm grating with dual-blazed profile and 1.6 linear reciprocal dispersion. Automatic wavelength selection and peaking. Continuously adjustable slits with 0.2 to 2 nm spectral bandwidth. Reduced height for furnace operation available with all slit widths. Automatic setting of slit width and height. Automatic scanning. Selected wide range multi-alkali photomultiplier tube.
Choice of lamp types Plug-in mounting for hollow cathode lamp or Application Source with vertical and horizontal adjustments for optimizing light throughput
Lamp supply Allows warm-up for next element using the Application Source.
Background correction Ultra-Pulse background corrector takes 200 (50 Hz) or 240 (60 Hz) sample readings per second for correction of fast background peaks. With approximately 1 ms between pulses and interpolation between measurements, the best possible accuracy is assured. High intensity deuterium arc lamp provides 185 - 425 nm correction range. Corrects to 2.5 total absorbance.
Interlocked flame control Flame ignition only on air based flames. Nitrous oxide ignition inhibited. Push button actuated glow plug ignition system. Safety interlocks on burner and liquid trap. Safety interlock system also prevents nitrous oxide selection with air-acetylene burner. Fast change selection of nitrous oxide-acetylene flame.
Automatic flame control (optional) Microprocessor controlled. Monitors gas pressures, flame and safety interlocks. Keypress selection of air or nitrous oxide-acetylene flames with automatic fuel enrichment for nitrous oxide flames. Automatic flame shutdown upon mains power failure.
Flame atomization system Premix design with solid polypropylene mixing chamber. All-titanium burner construction. Nebulizer has platinum-iridium capillary and titanium venturi. Liquid trap with liquid level interlock. Quick-change mounting to enable easy changeover to graphite furnace.
Performance guarantee Greater than 0.75 abs for 5 mg/L copper with an RSD less than 0.45% for ten 10-second integrations
Computer An IBM compatible computer incorporating an Intel Pentium™ microprocessor, 8 MB RAM, 1.44 Mb floppy disk drive, 540 Mb Hard drive, one parallel port, two serial ports, SVGA video card and SVGA colour monitor. In addition, a quad speed CD drive and Sound Blaster™ compatible sound card, bus mouse and 101 keyboard.
Software Microsoft Windows®95 (or later) operating system for true multitasking. Controls 932/933 Plus AAS, SDS-270 autosampler, PS-270 auto-diluter, GF3000 graphite furnace and PAL3000 furnace autosampler, HSA3000 high solids analyser and MC3000 mercury concentrator
Data processing Analysis by atomic absorption or emission. Absorbance range to 2.5. Measurement by integration, running mean, peak height or peak area. Mean and RSD of up to 50 replicate readings. Calibration using up to 10 standards. Curve correction by linear least squares, linear least squares through zero, exact fit or concentration least squares (polynomial), plus standard additions or bracketing standards. Programmable rescale using a single standard or complete recalibration. Result editing to remove unwanted readings. Weight and dilution correction. All editing available either during or post-run.
Graphics High resolution display of atomic absorbance and background signals, furnace temperature programs, calibration curves, peaking meters and wavelength scans. Different scales may be used for atomic and background signals. Signals may be displayed in the single shot, overlay or overview mode. Consecutive signals may be overlaid. Graphics cursor may be used to obtain numerical information from graphics traces. Zoom function allows graphics traces to be expanded.
Data storage Storage is provided for signal graphics, applications, results, sample labels, weights and dilutions, and report headers
Quality Quality control software satisfying GLP and GMP is supplied as standard.
Report generation Reports may be printed during a run or from stored result files. They may include headings, notes, operating parameters, calibration graphs, sample labels, results and statistics. Results from different runs (e.g., flame, furnace and vapour generation) may be com bined into a single report. Reports may be printed sequentially by element or in a multi-element format.
Dimensions Spectrometer module: 870 x 410 x 380 (WxDxH, mm) Weight Spectrometer module: Unpacked 48 kg, Packed 75 kg. Electrical Requirements 110/220/240 volts AC, 50/60 Hz, 300 VA.
Acessories System 3000 Graphite Furnace Automated graphite furnace system. Comprises GF3000 graphite furnace power supply and workhead plus PAL3000 programmable automatic sample loader. Controlled by the AAS computer.
GF3000 furnace assembly Furnace assembly includes graphite tube (and platform if required) mounted in enclosure with quartz windows. Permanently connected to power supply by umbilical cord carrying gas, cooling water and electrical supplies. Inert and auxiliary gas supplies. Temperature range ambient to 3000°C. Computer-controlled maximum heating rate of 2000°C/sec. Temperature program has unlimited number of steps, each with ramp and hold, gas selection, graphics display option and read option. Temperature controller monitors current and voltage and uses power feedback to provide accurate control over the full temperature range, and during both ramp and hold stages. Interlocked to inert gas and cooling water pressures. Corrects for changes in cooling water temperature.
PAL3000 furnace autosampler Accommodates up to 49 samples and one stock solution or 40 samples and 10 pre-mixed standards or one stock solution for automatic mixing of up to 10 standards. Container volumes are 2 mL for samples and standards, 5 mL for automix standard, 10 mL for blank and chemical modifier. Dispensed volume is 1–100 µL, programmable in 1 µL increments. All-PTFE capillary. 1 L rinse container. Probe set-up controlled by computer with co-ordinates stored in memory. Program options include automatic mixing of standards, automatic mixing of standard additions, automatic dilution of over-range samples, automatic injection of chemical modifier, multiple injection, heated injection, automatic rescale or complete recalibration, check sample and spike recovery.
Inert Gas Requirement Argon or nitrogen at a pressure of 70–200 kPa (10–30 psi).
Dimensions GF3000: 380 x 360 x 290 (WxDxH, mm.) PAL3000: 220 x 209 x 140 (WxDxH, mm.) Weight GF3000: Unpacked 35 kg, Packed 41 kg. PAL3000: Unpacked 7 kg, Packed 9 kg.
Electrical Requirements 208/220/240 volts AC, 50/60 Hz, Rated current 15A, surge current 40A.
SDS-270 Sample Delivery System The SDS-270 sample delivery system is a full random access X-Y-Z autosampler providing unmatched productivity, capacity for up to 270 samples and ten standards, and a small footprint. Samples are contained in three separate racks allowing for different tube sizes within a batch. The SDS-270 is controlled by the AAS software, providing random access, micro-sampling capability and standard additions analysis, plus check samples and quality control limits, plus programmable measurement time, delay time, rinse time, re-slope and re-calibration rates, number of samples, number of standards and number of replicates. A built-in diaphragm pump provides a continuous stream of clean rinse solution.
Dimensions 260 x 160 x 290 (WxDxH, mm) Weight Unpacked 7 kg, packed 15 kg Electrical requirements 110/220/240 volts AC, 50/60 Hz.
PS-270 Prep Station The PS-270 is used in combination with the SDS-270 auto-sampler, removing the need for manual standard and sample preparation and sample dilution for flame and hydride applications. The PS-270 is totally controlled through the AA software enabling true fully-automated analysis. Simple and reliable automation of standard additions and spike recovery, or sample matrix modification through the addition of up to two chemical modifier solutions provides hands-off operation and versatility. The ability to work in combination with Automatic Burner Rotation (ABR) extends the dynamic range beyond that of other dilution systems.
Dimensions 300 x 200 x 370 (WxDxH, mm) Weight Unpacked 5 kg, packed 6 kg.
FS3000 Autosampler For flame and hydride use only. Carousel holds 10 standards and 60 samples. Separate positions for rinse, blank and rescale standard.
Dimensions 420 x 230 x 380 (WxDxH, mm) Weight Unpacked 12 kg, packed 21 kg Electrical requirements 110/220/240 volts AC, 50/60 Hz, 120 VA
HG3000 automatic hydride analysis The HG3000 hydride generator is an automatic continuous flow system. Coupled with the SDS-270 autosampler, it provides totally automated analysis of arsenic,selenium, and the other hydride forming elements at part-per-billion levels. It can also be used to determine mercury by the cold vapour method. The optional EHG3000 electric heater provides controlled heating of the hydride cell to temperatures up to 1000°C, allowing hydride analysis to be performed without the use of a flame. With a precision of around 1% at ppb concentrations and a sample throughput of 60 samples per hour, the HG3000 provides the ultimate in fast, accurate and convenient hydride analysis.
MC3000 Mercury Concentrator Regulations for mercury analysis are pushing the required detection limits well below the level achievable using the standard cold vapour technique. The MC3000 mercury concentrator accessory for the HG3000 addresses this problem. By concentrating the mercury vapour on a gold foil, detection limits of 5 ppt can be readily achieved. The MC3000 accessory is fully controlled by the AAS software and unattended analysis can be carried out when used in conjunction with the SDS-270 sample delivery system.
HSA3000 High Solids Analysis The HSA3000 high solids analyzer enables analysis of solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved solids. In conventional sample introduction, samples with more than about 2% dissolved salt can cause blockage of the nebulizer or burner. The HSA3000 allows analysis of samples containing up to 30% dissolved solids. Samples may be presented manually or automatically with the autosampler.