Australian Government: National Pollutant Inventory: Organotin Compounds
Organotins with four organic groups, e.g. tetrabutyltin, tetraoctyltin and tetraphenyltin, can be used as starting materials or catalysts. Organotins with three organic groups can be powerful fungicides and bactericides, depending on the organic group R. Tributyltins (e.g. TBTO, Incidin) are industrial biocides used in antifouling paints and in wood treatment and preservation. They find use as disinfectants and agents for destroying molluscs such as snails (molluscicides). Other uses include antifungal action in textiles and industrial water systems such as cooling tower and refrigeration water systems, wood pulp and paper mill systems, and breweries. They can also be used for the control of schistosomiasis (a chronic tropical disease). Triphenyltins (e.g. Fentin, Tinmate, Brestanol) are used as agricultural fungicides and in antifouling paints. Other organotins in this class include Plictran, Bay Bue 1452, Vendex and Torque which are used as miticides/acaricides (substances used for killing mites or ticks). Organotins with two organic groups, e.g. dimethyltin, dibutyltin and diestertins, can be used as PVC heat stabilisers, as catalysts, in polyurethane formation and silicon curing, and as heat stabilisers for rigid food-packaging PVC. Organotins with one organic group, e.g. methyltin, butyltin, octyltin and monoestertins, are employed as PVC heat stabilisers. Common uses for selected organotin compounds follow. Tributyltin oxide is used as a fungicide and pesticide in timber treatments. It has been used in antifouling paints but this application is now banned by international protocol. Triphenyltin acetate is used as an insect control agent and a fungicide. Triphenyltin chloride is used as a biocide and an intermediate. Triphenyltin hydroxide is used as a chemical to sterilise insects and as a fungicide. Fenbutatin oxide is used for the control of a wide range of mites which feed on plants. Azocyclotin is a long-acting acaricide for the control of spider mites on fruits (including citrus), vines, hops, cotton, vegetables and ornamentals. Cyhexatin is used as an acaricide/miticide.