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The establishment of EVISA is funded by the EU through the Fifth Framework Programme (G7RT- CT- 2002- 05112).

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Outer-sphere surface complex

– A water molecule is present between the surface functional group and the bound ion or molecule (Sposito 1989). Outer-sphere complexes involve electrostatic coulombic interactions. Outer-sphere complexation is usually a rapid process that is reversible, and adsorption occurs only on surfaces that are of opposite charge to the adsorbate


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