Many scientist are studying phase transitions of materials, in order to understand their properties. Other physical methods can be used, but only diffraction is able to provide information on the global structure of the compound. One common problem is the control, during the acquisition time, of phase changes in the sample. Using X-RED 3000, from the beginning of the run, the user can visualised the entire diffractogram, practically in real time; so that a sample evolution is immediately visible. The X-RED 3000 offers solutions for a wide range of analytical problems, from routine qualitative and quantitative analysis, to residual-stress analysis, non-ambient analyses, retained austenite quantification, crystallite size/lattice strain and crystallinity calculations, phase transitions and transformations, kinetics & non-equilibrium phenomena.
The system, based on the Curved Position Sensitive Detector, has, as its main characteristic, the simultaneous detection of diffracted X-rays over a range of 120 or 90 degrees using the CPS 120 or the CPS 590 detectors respectively.
The monochromator housing, connected to the tube shield, holds a curved crystal (Johansson type) with an asymmetrical focussing geometry. An easy-to-use alignment tool permits a selection of X-ray beams with exclusively Ka1 radiation.
The X-ray generator is ultra stable with an on-board microprocessor controlled via a PC serial port.
The tube shield itself, is provided with a radial micrometric adjustment and the X-ray beam is collimated using a cross slit.
Several kind of source and optical components, sample holders, curved detectors, low and high temperature attachments can be added to meet all your requirements. In addition, custom-designed accessories can be manufactured to your specifications.
For parallel beam powder diffraction applications, a single parabolic mirror can be mounted as an attachment. With the Max-FluxTM Optical System, exact positioning of the sample is not necessary, and irregularly-shaped, non-flat specimens can be examined without difficulty.
The X-RED diffractometer system permits one to work in both transmission and reflection modes.
The apparatus uses Microsoft’s Windows 98/ME operating system in a 32-bit environment for real time data processing and instrument control, including the temperature attachments.
Powerful and user-friendly crystallographic software including Rietveld’s refinement makes measurement easier than ever and includes many sophisticated features to aid in the interpretation of the results.
Great attention has been given to operator safety: a series of devices are used to prevent accidental danger from irradiation and an X-ray proof cabin covers the working table.
X-ray generator (PC controlled) Maximum output power: 3 kW Output stability: <0.01% (for 10% power supply fluctuation) Max. output voltage: 60 kW Max. output current: 60 mA Voltage step width: 0.1 kV Current step width: 0.1 mA PC control serial mode: X-ray ON/OFF, settings of kV and mA, shutters Safety devices: Door interlock mechaninsm, emergency push button X-ray ON lamp Weight: 45 kg Size: Width 48.3 cm, height 22 cm, depth 63 cm
X-ray tube Type: Glass, Cu anode, fine focus Focus: 0.4 x 8 mm Max. output: 1.5 kW
Focusing monochromator Type: Johansson Germanium, Cu radiation, A=120, B = 360
Cross slit Type: adjustable 0-10 mm Tungsten slit edges
Sample holder Type: 20 x 15 x 2mm
Detector Type: CPS 120 Focusing radius: 250 mm Window height: 8 mm Measuring angle range: 120° (2 theta) Angular resolution: 0.03° (2 theta) Gas: Argon/Ethane high purity Gas pressure: 5.5 bars/gas flow Integral non - linearity: ±1 %
Processing unit Computer type: Personal computer, the latest version Items controlled: X-ray generator, detector, counting chain Basic data processing: Polynomial least squares smoothing. Fourier smoothing. Search for Peaks (automatic and manual). Spline background subtraction. Single peak analysis (area, FWHM, centroid, background). Marquardt fit (with pseudo-Voigt and Pearson VII curves, Ka2 contribution, weighted sum of squares). Sum and multiply by a constant. Four data buffers available. Scale normalization. Zoom. Graphical windows. Overlap and comparison of diffractograms. Multiview function. Cursor scan. Creation of graphic files .BMP. ICDD-PDF2 Card Overlap. Creation of calibration curves. Analysis of unknown samples.