The PerkinElmer OPTIMA 2000™ ICP optical emission spectrometer is a compact, bench-mounted, high-speed scanningCCD-based sequential ICP-OES system. All systems feature dual viewing of the plasma; a free-running 40-MHz solid-stateRF generator; a double monochromator; and a dual backside-illuminated charge-coupled device (DBI-CCD) detector.
The OPTIMA 2000 ICP-OES uses a unique double-monochromator optical system.The first, or preselection monochromator, selects a small portion of the spectrum around the analytical line of interest.The second, the Echelle-based highdispersion monochromator, disperses the narrow wavelength range onto the DBI-CCD.This unique design results in a highspeed, high light-throughput optical system offering excellent resolution, all in a compact system.The entire system is shockmounted so that normal floor vibrations do not affect system performance.The sealed optical system can be purged with nitrogen for low UV (<190 nm) performance.
The preselection monochromator has a focal length of 0.3 meter and uses a Stigmatic Littrow configuration. The disperser is a 30-degree CaF2 prism.
The high-dispersion Echelle monochromator also has a focal length of 0.3 meter and a Stigmatic Littrow configuration.The Echelle grating used for dispersion has 79 lines/mm with a blaze angle of 63.8 degrees.
The spectral range is 160–900 nm. The slew rate is less than 3 seconds to cover the spectral range, and the measured resolution is <0.009 nm @ 200 nm.The prism and Echelle grating are rotated less than ± 2 degrees to accessany wavelength, dramatically improving analytical speed.
The dual-view optics of the OPTIMA 2000 ICP-OES allow the plasma to be viewed radially or axially. Dual viewing of the plasma provides the best possible combination, allowing for trace and major levels of an element to be determined without having to do extensive methods development at several alternate wavelengths.The OPTIMA 2000 software allows the
selection of axial or radial viewing with automatic adjustment of the plasma viewing in both the vertical and horizontal direction.
The UV-sensitive, dual backside-illuminated CCD detector is cooled directly using a single-stage integrated Peltier cooler operated at approximately -8°C.The detector housing is hermetically sealed and is filled with dry nitrogen to eliminatecondensation.The detector has two photosensitive segments containing 176 by 128 pixels. One section is used
for analytical measurements, and the other is a wavelength reference section.The solid-state detector collects both the analyte spectra and the nearby background spectra, allowing for simultaneous background correction and providing improved precision and analytical speed.
Dynamic wavelength correction
The wavelength reference section monitors a full wavelength neon spectrum, creating a dynamic wavelength scale used to actively correct wavelength positions.The resulting wavelength accuracy and reproducibility allows direct correction ‘on-peak’ measurements rather than time-consuming peak-search methods used in sequential ICP systems.
ICP SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
RF generator and coil
The OPTIMA 2000 ICP-OES features a 40-MHz, free-running, solid-state (no power amplifier tube needed) RF generator, adjustable from 750 to 1500 watts, in 1-watt increments.The power efficiency is greater than 75% with <0.1% variation in output power stability.The solid-state components significantly increase reliability and can result in higher signal/power readings than conventional tube generators.The compact RF supply meets all FCC certification requirements for RF emission
(Part 18 of FCC Rules and Regulations). It also complies with EC and VDE 0871 Class B requirements.
Ignition and power control
Plasma ignition is computer-controlled and totally automated. A unique software feature allows the plasma to be ignited automatically at a user-determined time to warm up the system prior to an analysis.The plasma can be turned off automatically after an analysis.True power control maintains the plasma power, even when changing sample matrices.
For user safety and system protection, the system constantly monitors water flow, shear gas pressure, argon pressure, sample compartment door closure and plasma stability, and displays the interlock status on the computer screen asgraphic symbols. If an interlock is interrupted, the plasma will automatically shut down safely.
A water recirculating cooling system is required, with approximately 4 L/min flow capacity at 310 to 550 kPa and atemperature between 15°C and 25°C.A NESLAB CFT 75D or equivalent is recommended.
GAS FLOW CONTROLS
Computer-controlled solenoid valves are used to regulate the flow automatically within the range of 0-20 L/minin 1-L/min increments for plasma argon and 0 to 2.0 L/min in 0.1-L/min increments for auxiliary argon. A mass flow controller is supplied with all systems for the nebulizer argon flow and is variable between 0 and 2.0 L/min in 0.01-L/min increments.
A compressed air shear gas (18-25 L/min) is used to remove the plasma tail from the optical path, minimizing interferencesand extending the dynamic range.The shear gas design offers a maintenance-free and lower-cost (no use ofArgon) approach to removing the cooler plasma zone.
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION SYSTEM
A unique, demountable torch design using one-piece quartz tubing for plasma and auxiliary gas flow is supplied.The standard torch includes a 2.0-mm i.d. alumina injector for full corrosion resistance to all acids, including hydrofluoric and aqua regia. A variety of other injectors are available.
The OPTIMA 2000 ICP-OES features a unique, externally mounted spray chamber. The mount can be adjusted (with theplasma on) for maximum performance in different matrices. Unlike other external spray chambers, which can drift with room temperature, the OPTIMA 2000 torch mount is enclosed in a thermally controlled area outside of the torch compartment. No tools are required for torch or sample introduction removal.
The OPTIMA 2000 offers multiple sample introduction systems for complete flexibility.The standard Scott spray chamber is made from inert carbon-filled polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) for complete corrosion resistance to most acids, including HF.
A glass cyclonic spray chamber is available and is typically used for high-performance trace elemental analyses.
Both a cross-flow and a concentric nebulizer are available.The GemTip™ cross-flow nebulizer is manufactured from corrosion-resistant materials [sapphire/ruby tips in a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) body].The system can routinely handle 50% (v/v) solutions of HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4, 20% (v/v) HF and 30% (w/v) NaOH. The system is fully compatible with other sample introduction devices such as ultrasonics, concentrics, and spark ablation.
The three-channel, computer-controlled pump has variable speeds from 0.2 to 5 mL/min in 0.1-mL/min increments, using 0.76-mm (0.030 in.) i.d. tubing. Software features include FastPump™ and SmartRinse™, which dramatically improve the sample rinse-out and analysis times.
A spares kit, which includes an assortment of commonly required replacement items and consumables, is included withall Optima™ systems. PerkinElmer offers a complete range of accessories for the OPTIMA 2000.
200–240 VAC, 30A line (9 amp draw at 240 V), single phase, 50/60 Hz (±1%)
132 cm wide x 81 cm high x 76 cm deep
The instrument will operate with a laboratory temperature between 15 and 35 °C (59 - 95 °F). For optimum instrumentperformance, the room temperature should be controlled at 20 ±2 °C