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EFSA publishes dietary reference value for manganese


Manganese is an essential dietary element for mammals. It is a component of metallo-enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, arginase and pyruvate carboxylase,  but also functions as a specific or unspecific activator for a large number of other enzymes, some of which participate in the synthesis of proteins, mucopolysaccharides and cholesterol. A specific manganese deficiency syndrome has not been described in humans. Elevated intake of manganese above recommended amounts may be of concern in some dietary situations. However, the body is able to adapt to a wide range of manganese intakes by regulating both efficiency of absorption in the intestine and the quantity excreted via bile. There are no reliable and validated biomarkers of manganese intake or status and data on manganese intakes versus health outcomes are not available for DRVs for manganese.   

EFSA's Scientific Opinion:
As there is insufficient  evidence available to derive an average requirement or a population reference intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. The NDA Panel has set an AI of 3 mg/day for all adults, including pregnant and lactating women, and an AI ranging from 0.02 mg/day to 0.5 mg/ day for infants aged 7-11 months.

In addition, the scientific opinion sets manganese AIs for children and adolescents "using isometric scaling and reference body weights for the respective age groups." Although there are no biomarkers available to assess manganese intake or status, the NDA Panel notes that "nuts, chocolate, cereal-based products, crustaceans and mollusks, peas and beans, and fruit are rich sources of manganese," while the "main contributors to the manganese intake of adults are cereal-based products, vegetables, fruits and fruit products and beverages."

EFSA: Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for manganese

Related information

Australien Government: Nutrient Reference Values: Manganese
The International Manganese Insitute: Manganese and Human Health
Nordic Nutrition Recommendations: Manganese
USEPA: Integrated Risk Information System: Manganese
WHO: Chemical hazards in drinking-water: Manganese
WHO: Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 12: Manganese and its Compounds

Related studies:

Jerome A. Roth, Homeostatic and toxic mechanisms regulating manganese uptake, retention, and elimination, Biol. Res., 39/1 (2006) 45-57. doi: 10.4067/S0716-97602006000100006

J.L. Aschner, M. Aschner, Nutritional aspects of manganese homeostasis, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26 (2005) 353-362. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.003

J.H. Freeland-Graves, J.R. Turnlund, Deliberations and evaluations of the approaches, endpoints and paradigms for manganese and molybdenum dietary recommendations, J. Nutr., 126 (1996) 2435S-2440S.

B. Sandström, L. Davidsson, A. Cederblad, R. Eriksson, B. Lönnerdal, Manganese absorption and metabolism in man, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol., 59/s7 (1986) 60–62. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1986.tb02708.x

Related EVISA Resources

Link Database: Human exposure to manganese
Link Database: Analytical Methods for Manganese Determination
Link Database: Toxicity of Manganese

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last time modified: March 3, 2024


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