EVISA Print | Glossary on | Contact EVISA | Sitemap | Home   
 Advanced search
The establishment of EVISA is funded by the EU through the Fifth Framework Programme (G7RT- CT- 2002- 05112).


Supporters of EVISA includes:

Effect of cooking on the speciation of chromium in food

(08.02.2021)


Background:
Chromium is a very controversial transition element in food chemistry due to the very different toxicities of its main species. While Cr(VI) is classified to be carcinogenic, Cr(III) is part of some nutritional supplements considered to be beneficial for the human glucose metabolism. While the often stated essentiality of Cr(III) lacks the identification of the active biological species, even the beneficial effects reported are not convincing for healthy people according to the European Food Safety Authority. The question of the Cr toxicity is even more complicated, since the species actually damaging the DNA is Cr(III), yet Cr(III) is not very mobile and can hardly reach the interior of cells.

The presence of Cr(VI) in foodstuffs also is a question often disputed. While the organic material in foodstuffs leads to a reducing environment in which Cr(VI) can hardly survive for extended periods of time, some researchers have reported the presence of Cr(VI) in some foodstuffs such as bread, milk, meat, cereals, tea, mushrooms and rice. Other researchers disputing such results have made inconsistent analytical procedures responsible for the detection of Cr(VI) in such materials. We here at EVISA have always argued, that only species-specific isotope dilution, avoiding transformation errors during analysis can be used to create convincing results. Now a group of researchers from France and Denmark have finally applied such technique for the chromium speciation analysis in some foodstuffs.

The new study:
This study aimed at the assessment of the impact of various culinary processes on the fate of chromium (Cr) species (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) in infant formula milk, semi-skimmed milk and bovine meat samples. The cooking procedures were boiling at 70C/100C (milk samples) and frying without and with oil (95C and 120C) (bovine meat). The levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in raw and cooked samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using double spike species-specific-isotope dilution (SS-ID). This technique allows for the correction of species transformations during the analysis. ANOVA test used to compare the mean Cr species concentrations showed no significant differences between raw and cooked samples. The results obtained by the research group show that oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) does not occur during thermal cooking of milk and bovine meat samples. A further selection of 10 samples of each type were analysed in terms of total Cr as well as speciation (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Cr(VI) was not quantified in any of these samples, whereas Cr(III) levels ranged from 0.22 (infant formula milk) up to 80 μg kg−1 (chorizo sausage). Also the mass balance indicated that Cr is found exclusively as Cr(III) in these samples.




The original study:

Marina Saraiva, Rachida Chekri, Thierry Gurin, Jens J. Sloth, Petru Jitaru, Chromium speciation analysis in raw and cooked milk and meat samples by species-specific isotope dilution and HPLC-ICP-MS, Food Addit. Contam. Part A, 2021. DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2020.1859144
 


Thermo Scientific iCAP Q ICP-MS



Related studies (newest first)

M. Saraiva, R. Chekri, A. Leufroy, T. Gurin, J.J. Sloth, P. Jitaru, Development and validation of a single run method based on species-specific isotope dilution and HPLC-ICP-MS for simultaneous species interconversion correction and speciation analysis of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) in meat and dairy products. Talanta, 222 (2021) 121538. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121538.

R. Milačič, J. čančar, Cr speciation in foodstuffs, biological and environmental samples: methodological approaches and analytical challenges - A critical review. Trends Anal. Chem., 127 (2020) 115888. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2020.115888.

A. Shittu, R. Esfandi, A. Tsopmo, Chromium and arsenic speciation analysis in meats by HPLC-ICP-MS in the presence of hydrolyzed oat proteins with radical scavenging activities. Heliyon, 6 (2020) e03654. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03654.

B.H. Chen, S.J. Jiang, A.C. Sahayam. Determination of Cr(VI) in rice using ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food Chem., 324/15 (2020) 126698. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126698.

J.B. Vincent, The Nutritional Biochemistry of Chromium(III). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/C2017-0-02769-6

F. Hernandez, P. Jitaru, F. Cormanta, L. Nol, T. Gurin, Development and application of a method for Cr(III) determination in dairy products by HPLCICP-MS. Food Chem., 240 (2018) 183188. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.07.110.

R. Milačič, J. čančar, Letter to the Editor - Comment on recent article speciation of Cr in bread and breakfast cereals, published in Food Chemistry, (2017) 129, 1839-1843. Food Chem. 254 (2018) 7879. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.01.191.

Elliott M. Hamilton, Scott D. Young, Elizabeth H. Bailey, Michael J. Watts, Chromium speciation in foodstuffs: A review, Food Chem., 250 (2018) 105-112. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.01.016.

F. Hernandez, F. Sby, S. Millour, L. Nol, T. Gurin, Optimisation of selective alkaline extraction for Cr(VI) determination in dairy and cereal products by HPICICPMS using an experimental design. Food Chem., 214 (2017) 339346. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.099.

M.W. Mathebula, K. Mandiwana, N. Panichev, Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals. Food Chem., 217 (2017) 655659. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.020

K. Pyrzynska, Determination of Cr(VI) in tea. MOJ Food Process Technol. 4(4) (2017) 101102. DOI: 10.15406/mojfpt.2017.04.00096.

K. Pyrzynska, Chromium redox speciation in food samples. Turk J Chem. 40 (2016) 894905. DOI: 10.3906/kim-1606-5.

Y.A. Lin, S.J. Jiang, A.C. Sahayam, Y.L. Huang, Speciation of chromium in edible animal oils after microwave extraction and liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Microchem J. 128(2016) 274278. DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2016.05.001.

B. Novotnik, T. Zuliani, J. Scancar, R. Milacic, Content of trace elements and chromium speciation in Neem powder and tea infusions. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., 31 (2015) 98106. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.04.003.

V. Vacchina, I. De la Calle, F. Sby, Cr(VI) speciation in foods by HPLCICP-MS: investigation of Cr(VI)/food interactions by size exclusion and Cr(VI) determination and stability by ion-exchange on-line separations. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.,  407/13 (2015) 38313839. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-015-8616-3.

B. Novotnik, T. Zuliani, J. Scancar, R. Milacic, Chromate in food samples: an artefact of wrongly applied analytical methodology? J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 28 (2013) 558566. DOI: 10.1039/C3JA30233D.

K.L Mandiwana, N. Panichev, S. Panicheva, Determination of chromium (VI) in black, green and herbal teas. Food Chem., 129 (2011) 18391843. DOI: 10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2011.05.124.

M.E. Soares, E. Vieira, M.L. Bastos, Chromium speciation analysis in bread samples. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58 (2010) 13661370. DOI:10.1021/jf903118v

A.A. Ambushe, R.I. McCrindle, C.M.E. McCrindle, Speciation of chromium in cows milk by solid-phase extraction/dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICPMS). J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 24 (2009) 502507. DOI: 10.1039/B819962K.

E. Figueiredo, M.E. Soares, P. Baptista, M. Castro, M.L. Bastos, Validation of an electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry method for quantification of total chromium and chromium (VI) in wild mushrooms and underlying soils. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55 (2007) 71927198. DOI:10.1021/jf0710027.

R. Kovcs, A. Bni, R. Karosi, C. Sgor, J. Posta, Investigation of chromium content in foodstuffs and nutrition supplements by GFAAS and determination of changing Cr(III) to Cr(VI) during baking and toasting bread. Food Chem. 105/3 (2007) 12091213. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.02.030.

J.R. Cronin, The chromium controversy. Altern. Complement. Ther., 10/1 (2004) 3942. DOI:10.1089/107628004772830393.

H.M. Kingston, D. Huo, Y. Lu, S. Chalk, Accuracy in species analysis: speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) exemplified by the evaluation of chromium species. Spectrochim Acta B., 53 (1998) 299309. DOI:10.1016/S0584-8547(97)00143-2.





last time modified: February 9, 2021










Imprint     Disclaimer

© 2003 - 2010 by European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis ( EVISA )