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Speciation analysis of aluminium in wine by LC-ICP-MS


Aluminium is omnipresent in our environment, food and water. Due to its widespread use as packing and storing material, as well as its use for kitchen utensils (pots and pans), aluminium content of food is increasing during food processing. The average daily intake of aluminium has increased during the last century and has reached a few mg/day. Some toxicologist therefore talk about the "aluminium age" for our current period. The toxicity and bioavailability of aluminium depends to great extend on the species being present. There are strong indicators, that Aluminum has an active role in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementia. The most toxic aluminum species for living organisms are the inorganic species al3+, AlOH2+, Al(OH)2+ and so on.   

Aluminum is present in commonly consumed beverages, such as water, juices, soft drinks, beer and wines. From a chemical viewpoint, wine contains a large number of organic and inorganic compounds, being potential binding partners for aluminium. Due to such complex matrix, speciation analysis is mandatory for a meaningful evaluation of the toxicity of wine with respect to its aluminum content.

The new study:
A group of polish researchers aimed at the development of a speciation method for aluminum in red and white wine. They used a cation exchange column with 25 mM NH4NO3 as the mobile phase under isocratic elution conditions at pH = 3.0. The researchers also used speciation modeling to confirm experimental results.

The developed method was used to analyse 33 polish wines. In general the white wines showed a higher content of aluminum in comparison  to the red wines. The highest value was 2.64 mg/l  and the lowest one was 0.05 mg/l. The highest aluminum content in red wine was 0.45 mg/L and the lowest was 0.11 mg/L.

The speciation analysis of the wine samples showed three analytical signals. These signals could be identified as belonging to Al-citrate/Al-oxalate, AlF2+ and Al3+. The distribution between these three fractions changed between the wine type and wineries. The percentage of Al3+ was generally higher in white wines than in red wines. The smalest fraction in all wines was the AlF2+ fraction. The obtained results agree with theoretical calculations obtained by using a program for chemical modeling.

In comparison to the acceptable concentration limit of aluminum in drinking water established by WHO, which is 0.2 mg/L, the obtained content results for wines significantly exceed this limit.

The original study:

Katarzyna Karas, Anetta Zioła-Frankowska, Marcin Frankowski, Chemical Speciation of Aluminum in Wine by LC–ICP–MS, Molecules, 25 (2020) 1069. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25051069

Used techniques and instrumentation:

Shimadzu  - ICPMS-2030

Related studies

A. Zioła-Frankowska, J. Kuta, M. Frankowski, Application of a new HPLC-ICP-MS method for simultaneous determination of Al3+ and aluminium fluoride complexes. Helyion, 1 (2015) 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2015.e00035

A. Magnier, V. Fekete, J. VanLoco, F Bolle, M. Elskens, Speciation study of aluminiumin beverages by competitive Ligand Exchange-Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry. Talanta, 122 (2014)  30–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.12.051

M. Frankowski, Aluminium and its complexes in teas and fruity brew samples, Speciation and Ions Determination by Ion Chromatography and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Analytical Methods. Food Anal. Methods, 7 (2014) 1109–1117.
DOI: 10.1007/s12161-013-9721-6

B.B. Chen, Y. Zeng, B. Hu, Study on speciation of aluminum in human serum using zwitterionic bile acid derivative dynamically coated C18 column HPLC separation with UV and on-line ICP-MS detection. Talanta, 81 (2010) 180–186. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.11.057

A. Zioła-Frankowska, M. Frankowski, J. Siepak, Development of a new analytical method for online sumiltaneous qualitative determination of aluminium (free aluminium ion, aluminium-fluoride complexes) by HPLC-FAAS. Talanta, 78 (2009) 623–630. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.12.028

J.G. Ibanez, A. Carreon-Alvarez, M. Barcena-Soto, N. Casillas, Metals in alcoholic beverages: A review of sources, effects, concentrations, removal, speciation, and analysis, J. Food Compos. Anal. 21/8 (2008) 672-683. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2008.06.005

O. Happel, A. Seubert, Characterization of stable aluminium-citrate species as reference substances for aluminium speciation by ion chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 1108 (2006) 68–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.100
M. Gomez, R. Brandt, N. Jakubowski, J. Andersson,  Differences in the distribution of aluminum forms may result from the variety of wine varieties and the proportion in which they have been mixed. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (2004) 2953–2961. DOI: 10.1021/jf035119g
F. Lopez, C. Cabrera, M. Lorenzo, C. Lopez, Aluminium levels in wine, beer and other alcoholic beverages consumed in Spain. Sci. Total Environ., 220 (1998) 1–9. DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00214-9

last time modified: June 8, 2020


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