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Non-chromatographic separation techniques for speciation analysis


Liquid-liquid extraction
Anyhow, non-chromato-graphic separation techniques can also be used for speciation analysis, although their limited separation power does not allow for the separation of many species but rather for the separation of fractions. Such fractionation can be used as sample pre-treatment for following speciation analysis per-forming matrix removal and preconcentration of target species or simply provide first information of fractions of element species (see fractionation...). In cases, where only two fractions have to be differentiated, such techniques can provide "binary speciation" by providing information for inorganic vs. organic  species or highly oxidized vs. low oxidized species such as Cr(VI)/Cr(III), Fe(III)/Fe(II), As(V)/AsIII), Se(VI)/Se(IV) etc.

Non chromatographic separation methods used for such purpose are :
  • Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)
  • Solid-phase extraction (SPE)
  • Precipitation
  • Filtration/Ultrafiltration
  • Dialysis
  • Distillation
  • Derivatization (Hydride generation)

While these separation methods cannot as easily be coupled on-line with detection techniques as chromatographic ones, flow injection (FI) and sequential injection provides some means of automation and coupling for these methods. Anyhow, if fit for purpose, such techniques can provide methods that offer sufficient information on the elemental speciation for a series of situations. Moreover, these non-chromatographic strategies can be less time consuming, more cost effective and available, and present competitive limits of detection.

Related Reviews (newest first)

I. Morales-Benítez, P. Montoro-Leal1, J.C. García-Mesa, J. Verdeja-Galán, E.I. Vereda Alonso, Magnetic graphene oxide as a valuable material for the speciation of trace elements. Trends Anal. Chem., 157 (2022) 116777. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2022.116777

H.Y. Yang, R. Jian, J. Liao, J. Cui, P. Fang, Z.R. Zou, K. Huang, Recent development of non-chromatogtraphic atomic spectrometry for speciation analysis of mercury, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev., 57/6 (2021) 441-460. DOI: 10.1080/05704928.2021.1893183

Marcos Almeida Bezerra, Uillian Mozart Ferreira da Mata Cerqueira, Sérgio Luís Costa Ferreira, Cleber Galvão Novaes, Franciele Castro Novais, Gisseli Souza Valasques & Bruno Novaes da Silva (2021): Recent developments in the application of cloud point extraction as procedure for speciation of trace elements, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev., 57/4 (2022) 338-352.  DOI: 10.1080/05704928.2021.1916516

K.K. Jinadasa, E. Pena-Vazquez, P. Bermejo-Barrera, A. Moreda-Pineiro, New adsorbents based on imprinted polymers and composite nanomaterials for arsenic and mercury screening/speciation: A review, Microchem. J., 156 (2020) 104886. DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2020.104886

S.L.C. Ferreira, J.B. Perreira Junior, L.C. Almeida, L.B. Santos, V.A. Lemos, C.G. Novaes, O.M.C. de Oliveira, A.F.S. Queiroz, Strategies for inorganic speciation analysis employing spectrometric techniques - A Review, Microchem. J., 153 (2020) 104402. DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2019.104402

J. Werner, T. Grzeskowiak, A. Zgola-Grzeskowiak, E. Stanisz, Recent trends in microextraction techniques used in the determination of arsenic species, Trends Anal. Chem., 105 (2018) 121-136. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2018.05.006

C. Herrero-Latorre, J. Barciela-Garcia, S. Garcia-Martin, R.M. Pena-Crecente, Graphene and carbon nanotubes as solid phase extraction sorbents for the speciation of chromium: A review, Anal.- Chim. Acta, 1002 (2018) 1-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.042

Helen C. Rezende, Ione L. S. Almeida, Luciana M. Coelho, Nívia M. M. Coelho, Thiago L. Marques, Non-chromatographic methods focused on speciation of arsenic and selenium in food and environmental samples, Sample Prep., 2 (2014) 31–48. DOI: 10.2478/sampre-2014-0004

D. Das, U. Gupta, A.K. Das, Recent developments in solid phase extraction in elemental speciation of environmenmtal samples with special reference to aqueous solutions, Trends Anal. Chem., 38 (2012) 163-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2011.01.020

A. Gonzalvez, S. Armenta, M.L. Cervera, M. de la Guardia, Non-chromatographic speciation, Trends Anal. Chem-, 29/3 (2010) 260-268. DOI:10.1016/j.trac.2009.12.006

A. Gonzalvez, M.L. Cervera, S. Armenta, M. de la Guardia, A review of non-chromatographic methods for speciation analysis, Anal. Chim. Acta, 636 (2009) 129–157. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2009.01.06

Mariana A. Vieira, Patricia Grinberg, Cláudio R.R. Bobeda, Mariela N.M. Reyes, Reinaldo C. Campos, Non-chromatographic atomic spectrometric methods in speciation analysis: A review, Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 64 (2009) 459–476. DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2009.04.010

B. Hu, F. Zheng, M. He, N. Zhang, Capillary microextraction (CME) and its application to trace elements and their speciation, Anal. Chim. Acta, 650/1 (2009) 23-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2009.04.002

M. de Almeida Bezerra, M.A. Zezzi Arruda, S.L. Costa Ferreira, Cloud Point Extraction as a Procedure of Separation and Pre-Concentration for Metal Determination Using Spectroanalytical Techniques: A Review, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev., 40/3 (2005) 269-299. DOI: 10.1080/05704920500230880.

Related EVISA Resources

Instrument database: Flow injection instruments
Instrument database: Sample processing workstations
Instrument database: Extraction apparatus
Instrument database: SPE apparatus

 Related EVISA Resources: Brief summaries

About Speciation

   Speciation as a discipline in Analytical Chemistry – Definitions   
   Why should elemental speciation be done ?
   Why is elemental speciation analysis not done routinely ?
   Speciation analysis as a tool to enhance the quality of life
   Speciation and Toxicity

Research fields related to elemental speciation

   Chemical speciation analysis for the life sciences
   Chemical speciation analysis for nutrition and food science
   Trace element speciation analysis for environmental sciences
   Speciation analysis for the study of metallodrugs and their biomolecular interactions

Speciation Analysis - Striving for Quality

   Problems to be solved in the field of speciation analysis
   Error sources in speciation analysis - Overview
   Sample preservation for speciation analysis - General recommendations
   Species transformation during speciation analysis
   Certified Reference Materials for Chemical Speciation Analysis
   Standard methods for elemental speciation analysis

Further chapters on techniques and methodology for speciation analysis:

Chapter 1: Tools for elemental speciation
Chapter 2: ICP-MS - A versatile detection system for speciation analysis
Chapter 3: LC-ICP-MS - The most often used hyphenated system for speciation analysis
Chapter 4: GC-ICP-MS- A very sensitive hyphenated system for speciation analysis
Chapter 5: CE-ICP-MS for speciation analysis
Chapter 6: ESI-MS: The tool for the identification of species
Chapter 7: Speciation Analysis - Striving for Quality
Chapter 8: Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry as a Detection System for Speciation Analysis
Chapter 9: Gas chromatography for the separation of elemental species
Chapter 10: Plasma source detection techniques for gas chromatography
Chapter 11: Fractionation as a first step towards speciation analysis
Chapter 12: Flow-injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis
Chapter 13: Gel electrophoresis combined with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis
Chapter 14: Non-chromatographic separation techniques for speciation analysis

last time modified: January 14, 2024


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